By: Admin – Climate DepotJanuary 31, 2022 2:09 PM
By Kenneth Richard
Since 2019,there have been over 350 peer-reviewed scientific papers published showing no warming in the modern era and/or much warmer temperatures than today when CO2 levels ranged from 180 to 280 ppm (Holocene, Pleistocene).
Below is the link to the updated (now including 2021) database of non-hockey temperature records from locations across the world.
These hundreds of papers suggest a) Earth was multiple degrees warmer than today throughout much of the last 11,700 years (Holocene), and b) there has been nothing unusual about temperature changes in the modern era.
The first 8 papers on the 2021 list are shown below as samples.
Zhou et al., 2021 South China Sea ~4°C warmer SST during the Middle Holocene…1994-2004 coldest temperatures of the last 6000 years
Tarasov et al., 2021 (full paper) Arctic Siberia was 3.5 to 5°C warmer than today during the peak of the last glacial (180 ppm CO2), providing year-round grass grazing for large herbivores
Environments during the spread of anatomically modern humans across Northern Asia 50–10 cal kyr BP …. Northern Asia (here, the Russian Federation east of the Urals) played a key role in the spread of anatomically modern humans (AMH) across the Eurasian continent during the Upper Palaeolithic (UP). … Contrary to the long-standing view of a generally colder-than-present last glacial climate, these proxy records reveal evidence that summers were warmer than today by several degrees Celsius, providing additional advantages for human activities. Another benefit for large herbivores, and thus human subsistence, were the generally low winter precipitation levels (similar to those of the modern steppe regions of Mongolia), which sustained year-round grazing grounds. These factors apparently outweighed the harsh colder-than-present winter conditions and promoted habitation of AMH in Northern Asia even during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca. 30‒18 cal kyr BP. … [R]econstructed mean July temperatures 12°C for most of the last cold stage in the study area, where modern mean July temperatures are about 7°C … [A]t least 3.5°C higher-than-present summer temperatures during the Last Glacial Maximum [CO2 180 ppm] in the southern part of eastern Siberia
Wetterich et al., 2021 Siberian Arctic had “warmer-than-today temperatures (by up to 4–4.5° C)” during the last glacial (180 ppm CO2), or between “39 and 31 cal kyr BP”
Between 48 and 38 cal kyr BP, the chironomid fauna is dominated by typical aquatic taxa although chironomid counts and diversity decrease considerably between 46 and 44 cal kyr BP when the reconstructed TJuly rises up to 1.5°C above modern. The period between 44 and 41.5 cal kyr BP is characterized by the highest diversity and concentration of chironomids. The communities are dominated by the Heterotrissocladius grimschawi-type that occurs in oligotrophic lakes and is indicative of moderate conditions with temperature optima of 11–12°C. … Reconstructed TJuly slightly varies around modern with warmer-than-today TJuly around 41 cal kyr BP. … At about 51 cal kyr BP and 40 cal kyr BP in the Bykovsky record, the occurrence of the temperate aquatic plant Callitriche hermaphroditica provides evidence of mean TJuly of 12° C or more, while the finding of the steppe taxon Thesium dated to 51 cal kyr suggests TJuly of 15°C or more. The chironomid-based TJuly reconstruction for MIS 3 from the Sobo-Sise Yedoma record shows some variation (Figure 5) and points to warmer-than today (>11° C) temperatures at about 51 cal kyr BP, 46-44 and 41 cal kyr BP showing a general agreement with the plant macrofossil-based TJuly estimates from the Bykovsky Yedoma record (Kienast et al., 2005). … TJuly reconstructions from the western part of the Yana-Indigirka lowland (east of the study area) reveal similarto or warmer-than-today temperatures (by up to 4–4.5° C) and higher-than-today annual precipitation (by up to 50–100 mm) between about 39 and 31 cal kyr BP (Pitulko et al., 2017)
Civel-Mazens et al., 2021 22,000 years ago (180 ppm CO2) Southern Ocean surface temperatures peaked at 13.6°C, which is ~4-5°C warmer than today (~9°C)
Cruz et al., 2021 Argentina 1.7°C to 4.4°C warmer than today during the 1800s
The paleoclimatic history of Tixi Cave (Table 3, Figure 4), compared to the present, indicates a colder (−3.3°C) and dryer (−274.6mm) climate for the Pleistocene-Early Holocene transition (12,287±212–11,609±218ca BP). These cold and dry conditions remained during the Middle-Holocene (5592±79ca BP) with lower mean annual temperature (−2.4°C) and lower precipitation (−201.2mm) than the present. The change happened during the Late-Holocene IV (3496±81ca BP) with warmer and humid conditions than the current conditions, showing an increase in average annual temperature (+3.5°C) and annual precipitation (+90.8mm). These warm and humid conditions were kept during the rest of Late-Holocene III–I (1656±96–160±120 ca BP) with an increase in mean annual temperature between 1.7°C and 4.4°C and annual precipitation 27.5–263.6mm, higher than the current.
Nazarova et al., 2021 (full) East Russia 1.5°C warmer than present during Medieval Warm Period (750-1250 AD)
The Medieval Climate Optimum (Nara–Heian–Kamakura stage in Japan) reconstructed for the eastern part of Primorsky Krai in the period from 1250 to 750 cal years BP featured a humid climate with summer temperatures ca. 1.5°C higher than at present. The period between 750 and 250 cal years BP correlates with the Little Ice Age: summer temperatures had dropped to 1.5–2°C below the modern one.
Shuttleworth et al., 2021 Sub-Antarctic Atlantic ~2°C warmer (see diamonds) ~4000 to ~5000 years ago
Allan et al., 2021 Greenland 5-7°C warmer (4-5°C vs. 10-12°C) than today from 7,500 to 5,500 years ago.
At present…summer SST ranging from 4.0-5.2 °C (Ribergaard 2014). … Subzone B2 (from ~10 to 5 ka BP) is marked by…high summer SST ranging from 6 to 12 °C with an average of ~9 °C … Subzone A3 (from ~2.7 to ~1.3 ka BP) is characterized by cold conditions with summer SST of ~5 °C … Optimal thermal conditions…the July surface air temperature (SAT) estimated from pollen grains was ~10 to ~12 °C from ~7.5 to ~5.5 ka BP (Frechette & de Vernal 2009).